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Orson welles

Orson Welles Orson Welles

George Orson Welles war ein US-amerikanischer Hörspiel-, Film- und Theaterregisseur, Schauspieler und Autor. Obwohl viele seiner Projekte nie verwirklicht wurden oder unvollendet blieben, gilt Welles als einer der künstlerisch einflussreichsten. George Orson Welles (* 6. Mai in Kenosha, Wisconsin; † Oktober in Los Angeles, Kalifornien) war ein US-amerikanischer Hörspiel-, Film- und. Ich & Orson Welles (Originaltitel: Me and Orson Welles) ist ein Filmdrama aus dem Jahr Der von Richard Linklater inszenierte Film basiert auf dem. Freddie Gillette war Chauffeur, Koch und Vertrauter des Filmtitanen Orson Welles​. Er war es, der ihn tot im Badezimmer fand. Nun ist Freddie. Dass Orson Welles' begonnener Film "The Other Side of the Wind" noch einmal zu Ende gedreht werden würde, hatte kaum jemand für.

orson welles

An dem nie veröffentlichten Film "It's all true" wäre Orson Welles fast zugrunde gegangen. Der gleichnamige Roman von Carmen Stephan erzählt die mysteriöse. orson welles filme. George Orson Welles (* 6. Mai in Kenosha, Wisconsin; † Oktober in Los Angeles, Kalifornien) war ein US-amerikanischer Hörspiel-, Film- und.

Orson Welles - Viele unvollendete Projekte: Orson Welles

Diese fiktive Reportage soll bei ihrer Erstausstrahlung am Daraufhin konfrontiert Richard seinen Regisseur damit, dass er Affären hat, obwohl er verheiratet und seine Frau schwanger ist. Wrong language? orson welles

Silence de mort Encore du piano Nous allons entendre le brigadier chef Smith Un instant La Croix-Rouge est sur les lieux. Un capitaine tente de minimiser l'incident.

Pour autant, je vous en supplie Je vous remercie. Des scientifiques de toutes les nations proposent leur aide. Un instant s'il vous plait Depuis le toit de l'immeuble de CBS Radio.

Silovic, Espaces de noms Article Discussion. Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. La Splendeur des Amberson. It's All True.

Voyage au pays de la peur. Cyrano de Bergerac. Don Quichotte. In the Land of Don Quixote. Une histoire immortelle ORTF. The final film credits Chaplin with the script, "based on an idea by Orson Welles".

Welles spent around nine months around —48 co-writing the screenplay for Cyrano de Bergerac along with Ben Hecht , a project Welles was assigned to direct for Alexander Korda.

He began scouting for locations in Europe whilst filming Black Magic , but Korda was short of money, so sold the rights to Columbia pictures, who eventually dismissed Welles from the project, and then sold the rights to United Artists , who in turn made a film version in , which was not based on Welles's script.

After Welles's elaborate musical stage version of this Jules Verne novel, encompassing 38 different sets, went live in , Welles shot some test footage in Morocco in for a film version.

The footage was never edited, funding never came through, and Welles abandoned the project.

Nine years later, the stage show's producer Mike Todd made his own award-winning film version of the book. Using bare, minimalist sets, Welles alternated between a cast of nineteenth-century actors rehearsing a production of Moby Dick , with scenes from Moby Dick itself.

Kenneth Williams , a cast member who was apprehensive about the entire project, recorded in his autobiography that Welles's dim, atmospheric stage lighting made some of the footage so dark as to be unwatchable.

The entire play was filmed, but is now presumed lost. This was made during one weekend at the Hackney Empire theater. The producers of Histoires extraordinaires , a anthology film based on short stories by Edgar Allan Poe , announced in June that Welles would direct one segment based on both " Masque of the Red Death " and " The Cask of Amontillado " for the omnibus film.

Welles withdrew in September and was replaced. This Monty Python -esque spoof in which Welles plays all but one of the characters including two characters in drag , was made around Welles intended this completed sketch to be one of several items in a television special on London.

Welles wrote two screenplays for Treasure Island in the s, and was eager to seek financial backing to direct it.

His plan was to film it in Spain in concert with Chimes at Midnight. Welles intended to play the part of Long John Silver.

About 70 percent of the Chimes at Midnight cast would have had roles in Treasure Island. However, funding for the project fell through.

Jeeves was further rewritten, and formed the basis of the film version directed by John Hough , in which Welles played Long John Silver.

The Deep , an adaptation of Charles Williams 's Dead Calm , was entirely set on two boats and shot mostly in close-ups. It was filmed off the coasts of Yugoslavia and the Bahamas between and , with all but one scene completed.

It was originally planned as a commercially viable thriller, to show that Welles could make a popular, successful film.

It was abandoned altogether in , perhaps due to the death of its star Laurence Harvey. In a interview, Oja Kodar blamed Welles's failure to complete the film on Jeanne Moreau's refusal to participate in its dubbing.

Dune , an early attempt at adapting Frank Herbert 's sci-fi novel by Chilean film director Alejandro Jodorowsky , was to star Welles as the evil Baron Vladimir Harkonnen.

Jodorowsky had personally chosen Welles for the role, but the planned film never advanced past pre-production.

Hugh Hefner and Bogdanovich's then-partner Cybill Shepherd were both attached to the project as producers, with Hefner providing finance through his Playboy productions.

However, both Hefner and Shepherd became convinced that Bogdanovich himself would be a more commercially viable director than Welles, and insisted that Bogdanovich take over.

Since Bogdanovich was also in need of work after a series of box office flops, he agreed. When the film was finally made in by Bogdanovich and Hefner but without Welles or Shepherd's participation , Welles felt betrayed and according to Bogdanovich the two "drifted apart a bit".

After the success of his film Filming Othello made for West German television, and mostly consisting of a monolog to the camera, Welles began shooting scenes for this follow-up film, but never completed it.

The footage was kept by Welles's cinematographer Gary Graver , who donated it to the Munich Film Museum, which then pieced it together with Welles's trailer for the film, into an minute film which is occasionally screened at film festivals.

Both the Welles script and the film center on a U. Presidential hopeful in his 40s, his elderly mentor—a former candidate for the Presidency, brought low by homosexual scandal—and the Italian journalist probing for the truth of the relationship between these men.

During the last years of his life, Welles struggled to get financing for the planned film; however, his efforts at casting Jack Nicholson , Robert Redford , Warren Beatty , Clint Eastwood , Burt Reynolds and Paul Newman as the main character were unsuccessful.

All of the actors turned down the role for various reasons. In , Welles wrote the screenplay for a film he planned to direct, an autobiographical drama about the staging of The Cradle Will Rock.

However, Welles was unable to acquire funding. Tim Robbins later directed a similar film , but it was not based on Welles's script.

At the time of his death, Welles was in talks with a French production company to direct a film version of the Shakespeare play King Lear , in which he would also play the title role.

Welles flew to Paris to discuss the project personally with the Russian author. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the American actor and filmmaker. For the spider, see Orsonwelles. American actor, director, writer and producer.

This article's lead section may be too long for the length of the article. Please help by moving some material from it into the body of the article.

Please read the layout guide and lead section guidelines to ensure the section will still be inclusive of all essential details.

Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. April Welles on March 1, age 21 , photographed by Carl Van Vechten. Kenosha, Wisconsin , U.

Los Angeles, California , U. Actor director writer producer. Welles's birthplace in Kenosha, Wisconsin Main article: Orson Welles theatre credits.

Macbeth Horse Eats Hat Faustus Macbeth Jack Carter , left with the Murderers in Macbeth Houseman left and Welles at a rehearsal of Horse Eats Hat At age 22 Welles was Broadway's youngest impresario — producing, directing and starring in an adaptation of Julius Caesar that broke all performance records for the play Main article: Mercury Theatre.

Main article: Orson Welles radio credits. Citizen Kane Welles in Citizen Kane Main article: Citizen Kane.

Main article: The Magnificent Ambersons film. Main article: Journey into Fear film. Main article: It's All True film. Welles and Col.

Arthur I. Welles leaves his Army physical after being judged unfit for military service May 6, Main article: The Mercury Wonder Show.

Welles introduced Vice President Henry A. Roosevelt September 21, Transcription disc label for a Command Performance broadcast featuring Welles May 17, [92].

Main article: The Stranger film. Main article: Around the World musical. Main article: The Lady from Shanghai.

Main article: Macbeth film. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Othello film. Main article: Mr. Main article: Touch of Evil.

Main article: The Trial film. Main article: Chimes at Midnight. Play media. Paola Mori and Welles, days before their marriage May Main article: Don Quixote unfinished film.

Main article: The Merchant of Venice film. Main article: The Other Side of the Wind. Main article: Orson Welles filmography.

Main article: Orson Welles discography. The National Board of Review recognized both Welles and George Coulouris for their performances in Citizen Kane , which was also voted the year's best film.

Welles had changed the spelling of his surname by the time of the Federal Census, when he was living at Rudolphsheim , the Kenosha mansion built by his mother Mary Head Wells and her second husband, Frederick Gottfredsen.

France notes the inscription on the plaque: "Ronda. Al Maestro de Maestros. Twenty-four groups, ranging from Thespians of years' experience to child actors, are on the schedule.

Although most of the program will be played during July and August, the contest opened several days ago with the Todd School for Boys, of Woodstock, Ill.

The Todd boys were the cup winners. Oxford Reference. Retrieved March 21, The New York Times , October 11, Retrieved May 15, Jefferson, N.

Retrieved March 30, Jonathan Rosenbaum. June 25, Archived from the original on April 28, Retrieved May 9, Roger Ebert.

June 4, Senses of Cinema. Archived from the original on September 14, September 5, Archived from the original on October 13, Retrieved December 30, Archived from the original on March 3, The Daily Telegraph.

Retrieved November 9, New York: St. Retrieved September 29, Young Orson. New York: Harper. Kenosha Wisconsin Cemetery Association.

Retrieved November 12, George Ade, Warmhearted Satirist First ed. Turner Classic Movies. This is Orson Welles.

New York: HarperCollins Publishers. Chicago Tribune, May 13, , page Retrieved October 6, University of Rochester Library Bulletin, Winter Retrieved August 31, Albany, Georgia: BearManor Media.

Orson Welles on Shakespeare: The W. Orson Welles: A Biography. Viking Adult. Cornell College.

May 6, Privately printed, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 25, Event occurs at — Retrieved December 26, September 23, Retrieved April 8, November 23, Retrieved November 10, Internet Broadway Database.

Retrieved April 27, Arena: The History of the Federal Theatre. New York: Benjamin Blom, reprint edition []. Orson Welles: A Bio-Bibliography.

Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 17, Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Orson Welles: The Road to Xanadu. Syracuse Herald. August 27, The Olney Enterprise. August 14, Vanity Will Get You Somewhere. San Francisco: Mercury House.

The New York Times. Retrieved October 27, Retrieved August 6, New York: Routledge. Time Inc. Orson Welles: Hello Americans.

New York: Viking Penguin. Retrieved January 12, Joseph University of California Press. Retrieved May 23, October 28, Retrieved October 31, Retrieved May 7, Terror on the Air!

Learn Out Loud. The Making of Citizen Kane. Film Culture , number 9. British Film Institute. September Retrieved February 11, March 31, Retrieved January 31, Retrieved August 23, A Portrait of an Independent Career.

Barnard, Tim, and Peter Rist eds. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc. Orson Welles: Interviews. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, PM , September 13, , pp.

United States Department of Labor. Retrieved August 24, Billboard, September 12, September 12, Broadcasting , August 31, , page Abbott, Sam, Billboard , August 14, , page 4.

Retrieved June 10, Los Angeles Times , September 28, September 28, Wellesnet, May 3, May 3, Jerry Haendiges Vintage Radio Logs.

Retrieved August 7, Internet Archive. New York: Oxford University Press , Oakland Tribune.

Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. Duke University Libraries. Archived from the original on September 11, Retrieved August 27, Retrieved September 21, Ainley, Leslie G.

Broadcasting April 23, , page Broadcasting , April 16, , page Broadcasting , April 2, , page American Broadcasting Company, Inc.

Broadcasting , April 30, , pp. American Film Institute. Retrieved May 10, Audio commentary , The Stranger Blu-ray Disc.

New York: Kino Classics. Film and Genocide. In Wilson, Kristi M. Rosebud: The Story of Orson Welles.

New York: Alfred A. May 27, Chicago Reader. Retrieved March 16, June 19, Retrieved September 1, The Classic TV Archive.

Retrieved April 9, Retrieved September 3, October 17, Drew Associates. Retrieved August 19, February 10, University of Michigan Special Collections Library.

Los Angeles Times. The Baltimore Sun. Paramount bought the entire set of Nero Wolfe stories for Orson Welles, who is enjoying a renaissance of popularity in Hollywood and the world.

Milwaukee Journal. In Kaye, Marvin ed. The Nero Wolfe Files. Maryland: Wildside Press published The Guardian. Retrieved December 21, New York magazine.

Retrieved June 28, Lawrence French, Wellesnet, November 8, November 8, Associated Press Evening Independent , February 1, Retrieved February 7,

Un peu de maintenant Montreal Gazette. To appease the Nicolsons, who were furious at the couple's fernsehsender amerikanische, a formal ceremony took place December 23, kГ¶ln rex, at the New Jersey mansion of the bride's godmother. Warner Bros. France notes the inscription on the plaque: "Ronda. Murrow — Edward R.

Orson Welles - Navigationsmenü

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Silovic, Espaces de noms Article Discussion. Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. La Splendeur des Amberson. It's All True. Voyage au pays de la peur.

Cyrano de Bergerac. Don Quichotte. In the Land of Don Quixote. Une histoire immortelle ORTF. Citizen Kane. It's All True.

Stranger The Le Criminel. Magic Trick. Arkadin Dossier secret. Touch of Evil La Soif du mal. Campanadas a medianoche Falstaff.

Filming Othello. Journey Into Fear Voyage au pays de la peur. Bibbia La Bible. Monsieur Verdoux.

Jane Eyre. Black Magic Cagliostro. Black Rose The La Rose noire. Moby Dick. Man in the Shadow Le Salaire du diable. At 20, Welles was hailed as a prodigy.

Faustus that used light as a prime unifying scenic element in a nearly black stage, presented January 8 — May 9, , at Maxine Elliott's Theatre.

Presented at the Henry Street Settlement Music School in New York for the benefit of high school students, the production opened April 21, , and ran its scheduled three performances.

Because of severe federal cutbacks in the Works Progress projects, the show's premiere at the Maxine Elliott Theatre was canceled.

The theater was locked and guarded to prevent any government-purchased materials from being used for a commercial production of the work.

In a last-minute move, Welles announced to waiting ticket-holders that the show was being transferred to the Venice , 20 blocks away.

Some cast, and some crew and audience, walked the distance on foot. The union musicians refused to perform in a commercial theater for lower non-union government wages.

The actors' union stated that the production belonged to the Federal Theater Project and could not be performed outside that context without permission.

Lacking the participation of the union members, The Cradle Will Rock began with Blitzstein introducing the show and playing the piano accompaniment on stage with some cast members performing from the audience.

This impromptu performance was well received by its audience. Breaking with the Federal Theatre Project in , Welles and Houseman founded their own repertory company, which they called the Mercury Theatre.

The name was inspired by the title of the iconoclastic magazine, The American Mercury. We had not had such a man in our theater.

He was the first and remains the greatest. The Mercury Theatre opened November 11, , with Caesar , Welles's modern-dress adaptation of Shakespeare's tragedy Julius Caesar —streamlined into an anti-fascist tour de force that Joseph Cotten later described as "so vigorous, so contemporary that it set Broadway on its ear.

Scene changes were achieved by lighting alone. Beginning January 1, , Caesar was performed in repertory with The Shoemaker's Holiday ; both productions moved to the larger National Theatre.

Simultaneously with his work in the theatre, Welles worked extensively in radio as an actor, writer, director and producer, often without credit.

While he was directing the Voodoo Macbeth Welles was dashing between Harlem and midtown Manhattan three times a day to meet his radio commitments.

His performance as the announcer in the series' April presentation of Archibald MacLeish 's verse drama The Fall of the City was an important development in his radio career [38] : 78 and made the year-old Welles an overnight star.

It was his first job as a writer-director for radio, [19] : the radio debut of the Mercury Theatre , and one of Welles's earliest and finest achievements.

He performed the role anonymously through mid-September The series began July 11, , initially titled First Person Singular , with the formula that Welles would play the lead in each show.

Some months later the show was called The Mercury Theatre on the Air. Wells October 30, , brought Welles instant fame. The combination of the news bulletin form of the performance with the between-breaks dial spinning habits of listeners was later reported to have created widespread confusion among listeners who failed to hear the introduction, although the extent of this confusion has come into question.

Welles's growing fame drew Hollywood offers, lures that the independent-minded Welles resisted at first. The Mercury Theatre on the Air, which had been a sustaining show without sponsorship was picked up by Campbell Soup and renamed The Campbell Playhouse.

After 20 shows, Campbell began to exercise more creative control and had complete control over story selection. As his contract with Campbell came to an end, Welles chose not to sign on for another season.

After the broadcast of March 31, , Welles and Campbell parted amicably. The Magnificent Ambersons Journey into Fear The Stranger The Lady from Shanghai RKO Radio Pictures president George Schaefer eventually offered Welles what generally is considered the greatest contract offered to a filmmaker, much less to one who was untried.

Engaging him to write, produce, direct and perform in two motion pictures, the contract subordinated the studio's financial interests to Welles's creative control, and broke all precedent by granting Welles the right of final cut.

Welles co-wrote, produced and directed the film, and performed the lead role. Mankiewicz , who was writing radio plays for The Campbell Playhouse.

After agreeing on the storyline and character, Welles supplied Mankiewicz with pages of notes and put him under contract to write the first draft screenplay under the supervision of John Houseman.

Welles wrote his own draft, [19] : 54 then drastically condensed and rearranged both versions and added scenes of his own. The industry accused Welles of underplaying Mankiewicz's contribution to the script, but Welles countered the attacks by saying, "At the end, naturally, I was the one making the picture, after all—who had to make the decisions.

I used what I wanted of Mank's and, rightly or wrongly, kept what I liked of my own. Welles's project attracted some of Hollywood's best technicians, including cinematographer Gregg Toland.

Filming Citizen Kane took ten weeks. Hearst's newspapers barred all reference to Citizen Kane and exerted enormous pressure on the Hollywood film community to force RKO to shelve the film.

Mayer and other major studio executives if he would destroy the negative and existing prints of the film. James Theatre.

The Mercury Production was the last time Welles and Houseman worked together. Citizen Kane was given a limited release and the film received overwhelming critical praise.

Variety reported that block voting by screen extras deprived Citizen Kane of Oscars for Best Picture and Best Actor Welles , and similar prejudices were likely to have been responsible for the film receiving no technical awards.

The delay in the film's release and uneven distribution contributed to mediocre results at the box office. After it ran its course theatrically, Citizen Kane was retired to the vault in In postwar France, however, the film's reputation grew after it was seen for the first time in That year it was also re-released theatrically, [59] : and film critic Andrew Sarris described it as "the great American film" and "the work that influenced the cinema more profoundly than any American film since Birth of a Nation.

Toland was not available, so Stanley Cortez was named cinematographer. The meticulous Cortez worked slowly and the film lagged behind schedule and over budget.

Prior to production, Welles's contract was renegotiated, revoking his right to control the final cut. Throughout the shooting of the film Welles was also producing a weekly half-hour radio series, The Orson Welles Show.

In addition to acting in the film, Welles was the producer. Direction was credited to Norman Foster. Welles later said that they were in such a rush that the director of each scene was determined by whoever was closest to the camera.

Journey into Fear was in production January 6 — March 12, Welles was thoroughly briefed in Washington, D. Benamou, a specialist in Latin American affairs, finds it "not unlikely" that he was among the goodwill ambassadors who were asked to gather intelligence for the U.

She concludes that Welles's acceptance of Whitney's request was "a logical and patently patriotic choice".

In addition to working on his ill-fated film project, It's All True , Welles was responsible for radio programs, lectures, interviews and informal talks as part of his OCIAA-sponsored cultural mission, which was regarded as a success.

Welles's ambassadorial mission was extended to permit his travel to other nations including Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay.

Welles's own expectations for the film were modest. In July , Welles conceived It's All True as an omnibus film mixing documentary and docufiction [24] : [68] : 27 in a project that emphasized the dignity of labor and celebrated the cultural and ethnic diversity of North America.

He also decided to do a ripped-from-the-headlines episode about the epic voyage of four poor Brazilian fishermen, the jangadeiros , who had become national heroes.

Welles later said this was the most valuable story. Welles left for Brazil on February 4 and began filming in Rio February 8, Benamou wrote, "the ambassadorial appointment would be the first in a series of turning points leading—in 'zigs' and 'zags,' rather than in a straight line—to Welles's loss of complete directorial control over both The Magnificent Ambersons and It's All True , the cancellation of his contract at RKO Radio Studio, the expulsion of his company Mercury Productions from the RKO lot, and, ultimately, the total suspension of It's All True.

In RKO Pictures underwent major changes under new management. Nelson Rockefeller, the primary backer of the Brazil project, left its board of directors, and Welles's principal sponsor at RKO, studio president George Schaefer, resigned.

RKO took control of Ambersons and edited the film into what the studio considered a commercial format. Welles's attempts to protect his version ultimately failed.

Given a limited amount of black-and-white film stock and a silent camera, he was able to finish shooting the episode about the jangadeiros , but RKO refused to support further production on the film.

I never recovered from that attack. Airing August 29, , on the Blue Network , the program was presented in cooperation with the United States Department of the Treasury , Western Union which wired bond subscriptions free of charge and the American Women's Voluntary Services.

On October 12, , Cavalcade of America presented Welles's radio play, Admiral of the Ocean Sea , an entertaining and factual look at the legend of Christopher Columbus.

The Axis, trying to stir Latin America against Anglo-America, had constantly emphasized the differences between the two. It became the job of American radio to emphasize their common experience and essential unity.

Admiral of the Ocean Sea , also known as Columbus Day , begins with the words, "Hello Americans"—the title Welles would choose for his own series five weeks later.

The minute weekly program promoted inter-American understanding and friendship, drawing upon the research amassed for the ill-fated film, It's All True.

The program was conceived to glorify the aviation industry and dramatize its role in World War II. Welles's shows were regarded as significant contributions to the war effort.

Throughout the war Welles worked on patriotic radio programs including Command Performance , G.

Filming also had wrapped on the film adaptation of Jane Eyre and that fee, in addition to the income from his regular guest-star roles in radio, made it possible for Welles to fulfill a lifelong dream.

He approached the War Assistance League of Southern California and proposed a show that evolved into a big-top spectacle, part circus and part magic show.

Members of the U. The development of the show coincided with the resolution of Welles's oft-changing draft status in May , when he was finally declared 4-F—unfit for military service—for a variety of medical reasons.

The Mercury Wonder Show ran August 3 — September 9, , in an byfoot tent [88] located at Cahuenga Boulevard , in the heart of Hollywood.

Welles remarked that The Mercury Wonder Show had been performed for approximately 48, members of the U. The idea of doing a radio variety show occurred to Welles after his success as substitute host of four consecutive episodes March 14 — April 4, of The Jack Benny Program , radio's most popular show, when Benny contracted pneumonia on a performance tour of military bases.

Many of the shows originated on U. Welles campaigned ardently for Roosevelt in A longtime supporter and campaign speaker for FDR, he occasionally sent the president ideas and phrases that were sometimes incorporated into what Welles characterized as "less important speeches".

Welles campaigned for the Roosevelt—Truman ticket almost full-time in the fall of , traveling to nearly every state [22] : — to the detriment of his own health [24] : — and at his own expense.

On April 12, , the day Franklin D. Roosevelt died, the Blue-ABC network marshalled its entire executive staff and national leaders to pay homage to the late president.

Welles presented another special broadcast on the death of Roosevelt the following evening: "We must move on beyond mere death to that free world which was the hope and labor of his life.

He presented a half-hour dramatic program written by Ben Hecht on the opening day of the conference, and on Sunday afternoons April 29 — June 10 he led a weekly discussion from the San Francisco Civic Auditorium.

In the fall of Welles began work on The Stranger , a film noir drama about a war crimes investigator who tracks a high-ranking Nazi fugitive to an idyllic New England town.

Edward G. Robinson , Loretta Young and Welles star. Producer Sam Spiegel initially planned to hire director John Huston , who had rewritten the screenplay by Anthony Veiller.

When Huston entered the military, Welles was given the chance to direct and prove himself able to make a film on schedule and under budget [38] : 19 —something he was so eager to do that he accepted a disadvantageous contract.

One of its concessions was that he would defer to the studio in any creative dispute. The Stranger was Welles's first job as a film director in four years.

Nims under the terms of the contract. The Stranger was the first commercial film to use documentary footage from the Nazi concentration camps.

Completed a day ahead of schedule and under budget, [22] : — The Stranger was the only film made by Welles to have been a bona fide box office success upon its release.

No reason was given, but the impression was left that The Stranger would not make money. Producer Mike Todd , who would later produce the successful film adaptation , pulled out from the lavish and expensive production, leaving Welles to support the finances.

When Welles ran out of money he convinced Columbia Pictures president Harry Cohn to send enough money to continue the show, and in exchange Welles promised to write, produce, direct and star in a film for Cohn for no further fee.

The stage show soon failed due to poor box-office, with Welles unable to claim the losses on his taxes.

While Mercury Summer Theatre featured half-hour adaptations of some classic Mercury radio shows from the s, the first episode was a condensation of his Around the World stage play, and is the only record of Cole Porter's music for the project.

Several original Mercury actors returned for the series, as well as Bernard Herrmann. Welles invested his earnings into his failing stage play.

Commentaries was a political vehicle for him, continuing the themes from his New York Post column.

Welles brought significant attention to Woodard's cause. The last broadcast of Orson Welles Commentaries on October 6, , marked the end of Welles's own radio shows.

The film that Welles was obliged to make in exchange for Harry Cohn's help in financing the stage production Around the World was The Lady from Shanghai , filmed in for Columbia Pictures.

Intended as a modest thriller, the budget skyrocketed after Cohn suggested that Welles's then-estranged second wife Rita Hayworth co-star.

Cohn disliked Welles's rough cut , particularly the confusing plot and lack of close-ups, and was not in sympathy with Welles's Brechtian use of irony and black comedy , especially in a farcical courtroom scene.

Cohn ordered extensive editing and re-shoots. After heavy editing by the studio, approximately one hour of Welles's first cut was removed, including much of a climactic confrontation scene in an amusement park funhouse.

While expressing displeasure at the cuts, Welles was appalled particularly with the musical score. The film was considered a disaster in America at the time of release, though the closing shootout in a hall of mirrors has since become a touchstone of film noir.

Not long after release, Welles and Hayworth finalized their divorce. Prior to , Welles convinced Republic Pictures to let him direct a low-budget version of Macbeth , which featured highly stylized sets and costumes, and a cast of actors lip-syncing to a pre-recorded soundtrack, one of many innovative cost-cutting techniques Welles deployed in an attempt to make an epic film from B-movie resources.

The script, adapted by Welles, is a violent reworking of Shakespeare's original, freely cutting and pasting lines into new contexts via a collage technique and recasting Macbeth as a clash of pagan and proto-Christian ideologies.

Of all Welles's post- Kane Hollywood productions, Macbeth is stylistically closest to Citizen Kane in its long takes and deep focus photography.

Republic initially trumpeted the film as an important work but decided it did not care for the Scottish accents and held up general release for almost a year after early negative press reaction, including Life ' s comment that Welles's film "doth foully slaughter Shakespeare.

Welles returned and cut 20 minutes from the film at Republic's request and recorded narration to cover some gaps.

The film was decried as a disaster. Macbeth had influential fans in Europe, especially the French poet and filmmaker Jean Cocteau , who hailed the film's "crude, irreverent power" and careful shot design, and described the characters as haunting "the corridors of some dreamlike subway, an abandoned coal mine, and ruined cellars oozing with water.

In Italy he starred as Cagliostro in the film Black Magic. His co-star, Akim Tamiroff , impressed Welles so much that Tamiroff would appear in four of Welles's productions during the s and s.

During this time, Welles was channeling his money from acting jobs into a self-financed film version of Shakespeare's play Othello.

From to , Welles worked on Othello , filming on location in Italy and Morocco. The American release prints had a technically flawed soundtrack, suffering from a dropout of sound at every quiet moment.

Welles's daughter, Beatrice Welles-Smith, restored Othello in for a wide re-release. The restoration included reconstructing Angelo Francesco Lavagnino 's original musical score, which was originally inaudible, and adding ambient stereo sound effects, which were not in the original film.

The restoration went on to a successful theatrical run in America. In , Welles continued finding work in England after the success of the Harry Lime radio show.

Welles briefly returned to America to make his first appearance on television, starring in the Omnibus presentation of King Lear , broadcast live on CBS October 18, Welles's next turn as director was the film Mr.

Arkadin , which was produced by his political mentor from the s, Louis Dolivet. It was filmed in France, Germany, Spain and Italy on a very limited budget.

Based loosely on several episodes of the Harry Lime radio show, it stars Welles as a billionaire who hires a man to delve into the secrets of his past.

Frustrated by his slow progress in the editing room, producer Dolivet removed Welles from the project and finished the film without him.

Eventually five different versions of the film would be released, two in Spanish and three in English. The version that Dolivet completed was retitled Confidential Report.

In Stefan Droessler of the Munich Film Museum oversaw a reconstruction of the surviving film elements.

In , Welles also directed two television series for the BBC. The first was Orson Welles' Sketch Book , a series of six minute shows featuring Welles drawing in a sketchbook to illustrate his reminiscences for the camera including such topics as the filming of It's All True and the Isaac Woodard case , and the second was Around the World with Orson Welles , a series of six travelogues set in different locations around Europe such as Vienna , the Basque Country between France and Spain, and England.

Welles served as host and interviewer, his commentary including documentary facts and his own personal observations a technique he would continue to explore in later works.

During Episode 3 of Sketchbook Welles makes a deliberate attack on the abuse of police powers around the world. The episode starts with him telling the story of Isaac Woodard , an African-American Veteran of the South Pacific during World War II being falsely accused by a bus driver of being drunk and disorderly, who then has a policeman remove the man from the bus.

Woodard is not arrested right away, but rather he is beaten into unconsciousness nearly to the point of death and when he finally regains consciousness he is permanently blinded.

By the time doctors from the US Army located him three weeks later there was nothing that could be done. Welles assures the audience that he personally saw to it that justice was served to this policeman although he doesn't mention what type of justice was delivered.

Welles then goes on to give other examples of police being given more power and authority than is necessary. The title of this episode is: The Police.

In , Welles completed Portrait of Gina. The film cans would remain in a lost-and-found locker at the hotel for several decades, where they were discovered after Welles's death.

In , Welles returned to Hollywood. Originally deemed not viable as a pilot, the film was not aired until —and won the Peabody Award for excellence.

Welles guest starred on television shows including I Love Lucy. Originally only hired as an actor, Welles was promoted to director by Universal Studios at the insistence of Charlton Heston.

Filming proceeded smoothly, with Welles finishing on schedule and on budget, and the studio bosses praising the daily rushes.

Nevertheless, after the end of production, the studio re-edited the film, re-shot scenes, and shot new exposition scenes to clarify the plot.

Throughout the s, filming continued on Quixote on-and-off until the end of the decade, as Welles evolved the concept, tone and ending several times.

Although he had a complete version of the film shot and edited at least once, he would continue toying with the editing well into the s, he never completed a version of the film he was fully satisfied with, and would junk existing footage and shoot new footage.

In one case, he had a complete cut ready in which Quixote and Sancho Panza end up going to the moon, but he felt the ending was rendered obsolete by the moon landings, and burned 10 reels of this version.

As the process went on, Welles gradually voiced all of the characters himself and provided narration. Some of the film stock had decayed badly.

While the Welles footage was greeted with interest, the post-production by Franco was met with harsh criticism.

Similar to the Around the World with Orson Welles series, they presented travelogues of Spain and included Welles's wife, Paola, and their daughter, Beatrice.

Though Welles was fluent in Italian, the network was not interested in him providing Italian narration because of his accent, and the series sat unreleased until , by which time the network had added Italian narration of its own.

Ultimately, versions of the episodes were released with the original musical score Welles had approved, but without the narration.

While filming exteriors in Zagreb , Welles was informed that the Salkinds had run out of money, meaning that there could be no set construction.

No stranger to shooting on found locations, Welles soon filmed the interiors in the Gare d'Orsay , at that time an abandoned railway station in Paris.

Welles thought the location possessed a " Jules Verne modernism" and a melancholy sense of "waiting", both suitable for Kafka.

To remain in the spirit of Kafka Welles set up the cutting room together with the Film Editor, Frederick Muller as Fritz Muller , in the old un-used, cold, depressing, station master office.

The film failed at the box-office. Peter Bogdanovich would later observe that Welles found the film riotously funny.

Welles also told a BBC interviewer that it was his best film. If I wanted to get into heaven on the basis of one movie, that's the one I would offer up.

The film had a successful run in French theaters. At this time Welles met Oja Kodar again, and gave her a letter he had written to her and had been keeping for four years; they would not be parted again.

They immediately began a collaboration both personal and professional. Unfortunately, funding disappeared after one day's shooting. After completing this film, he appeared in a brief cameo as Cardinal Wolsey in Fred Zinnemann 's adaptation of A Man for All Seasons —a role for which he won considerable acclaim.

Personally financed by Welles and Kodar, they could not obtain the funds to complete the project, and it was abandoned a few years later after the death of Harvey.

The surviving footage was eventually edited and released by the Filmmuseum München. In Welles called again the Film Editor Frederick Muller to work with him re-editing the material and they set up cutting rooms at the Safa Palatino Studios in Rome.

Without funding, the show was not completed. The surviving film clips portions were eventually released by the Filmmuseum München.

In , Welles authorized the use of his name for a cinema in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Orson Welles Cinema remained in operation until , with Welles making a personal appearance there in Drawn by the numerous offers he received to work in television and films, and upset by a tabloid scandal reporting his affair with Kodar, Welles abandoned the editing of Don Quixote and moved back to America in Welles returned to Hollywood, where he continued to self-finance his film and television projects.

While offers to act, narrate and host continued, Welles also found himself in great demand on television talk shows. Welles's primary focus during his final years was The Other Side of the Wind , a project that was filmed intermittently between and Co-written by Welles and Oja Kodar, it is the story of an aging film director John Huston looking for funds to complete his final film.

Financed by Iranian backers, ownership of the film fell into a legal quagmire after the Shah of Iran was deposed. The legal disputes kept the film in its unfinished state until early , and was finally released in November In , Welles directed a short adaptation of Moby-Dick , a one-man performance on a bare stage, reminiscent of his stage production Moby Dick—Rehearsed.

Never completed, it was eventually released by the Filmmuseum München. He also appeared in Ten Days' Wonder , co-starring with Anthony Perkins and directed by Claude Chabrol who reciprocated with a bit part as himself in Other Wind , based on a detective novel by Ellery Queen.

That same year, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences gave him an Academy Honorary Award "for superlative artistry and versatility in the creation of motion pictures.

In his speech, Huston criticized the Academy for presenting the award while refusing to support Welles' projects. In , Welles acted as on-screen narrator for the film documentary version of Alvin Toffler 's book Future Shock.

This was the last time he played the lead role in a major film. Welles also contributed to the script, his writing credit was attributed to the pseudonym 'O.

In some versions of the film Welles's original recorded dialog was redubbed by Robert Rietty. An excerpt of Welles's s War of the Worlds broadcast was recreated for this film; however, none of the dialogue heard in the film actually matches what was originally broadcast.

Welles filmed a five-minute trailer, rejected in the U. Welles hosted a British syndicated anthology series, Orson Welles's Great Mysteries , during the —74 television season.

His brief introductions to the 26 half-hour episodes were shot in July by Gary Graver. Gilroy was signed to write the television script and direct the TV movie on the assurance that Welles would star, but by April Welles had bowed out.

Made for West German television, it was also released in theaters. Unable to find network interest, the pilot was never broadcast. Beginning in the late s, Welles participated in a series of famous television commercial advertisements.

For two years he was on-camera spokesman for the Paul Masson Vineyards, [d] and sales grew by one third during the time Welles intoned what became a popular catchphrase: "We will sell no wine before its time.

As money ran short, he began directing commercials to make ends meet, including the famous British "Follow the Bear" commercials for Hofmeister lager.

Interviewed by Leslie Megahey, Welles examined his past in great detail, and several people from his professional past were interviewed as well.

Welles provided narration for the tracks "Defender" from Manowar 's album Fighting the World and "Dark Avenger" on their album, Battle Hymns.

He also recorded the concert introduction for the live performances of Manowar that says, "Ladies and gentlemen, from the United States of America, all hail Manowar.

Another project he worked on was Filming The Trial , the second in a proposed series of documentaries examining his feature films.

While much was shot for these projects, none of them was completed. All of them were eventually released by the Filmmuseum München.

In , Welles narrated the short-lived television series Scene of the Crime. During the early years of Magnum, P.

Welles's death forced this minor character to largely be written out of the series. In an oblique homage to Welles, the Magnum, P.

The last film roles before Welles's death included voice work in the animated films Enchanted Journey and The Transformers: The Movie , in which he played the planet-eating robot Unicron.

His last film appearance was in Henry Jaglom 's independent film Someone to Love , released two years after his death but produced before his voice-over in Transformers: The Movie.

His last television appearance was on the television show Moonlighting. He recorded an introduction to an episode entitled "The Dream Sequence Always Rings Twice", which was partially filmed in black and white.

The episode aired five days after his death and was dedicated to his memory. Orson Welles and Chicago-born actress and socialite Virginia Nicolson — were married on November 14, Their relationship came to an end due, among other things, to Welles's infidelities.

Welles married Rita Hayworth on September 7, The couple began a passionate affair, and they were married at her parents' insistence.

Croatian-born artist and actress Oja Kodar became Welles's longtime companion both personally and professionally from onward, and they lived together for some of the last 20 years of his life.

Lindsay-Hogg knew Welles, worked with him in the theatre and met him at intervals throughout Welles's life. In his autobiography, Lindsay-Hogg reported that his questions were resolved by his mother's close friend Gloria Vanderbilt , who wrote that Fitzgerald had told her that Welles was his father.

McKerrow's reactions to the revelation and his meeting with Oja Kodar are documented in the film Prodigal Sons.

Despite an urban legend promoted by Welles, [f] [g] he was not related to Abraham Lincoln 's wartime Secretary of the Navy, Gideon Welles.

The myth dates back to the first newspaper feature ever written about Welles—"Cartoonist, Actor, Poet and only 10"—in the February 19, , issue of The Capital Times.

The article falsely states that he was descended from "Gideon Welles, who was a member of President Lincoln's cabinet". Peter Noble's biography describes Welles as "a magnificent figure of a man, over six feet tall, handsome, with flashing eyes and a gloriously resonant speaking-voice".

Even as a baby, Welles was prone to illness, including diphtheria , measles , whooping cough , and malaria. From infancy he suffered from asthma , sinus headaches, and backache [22] : 8 that was later found to be caused by congenital anomalies of the spine.

Foot and ankle trouble throughout his life was the result of flat feet. In , at age 13, Welles was already more than six feet tall 1.

By summer , when he was 34, his weight had crept up to a stout pounds

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Orson Welles Video

The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson (1976) - Orson Welles Interview

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